ISSN: 2038-0925

Editorial and Bibliographical Guidelines






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Journals and publications quoted in the body of the text should be indicated in angle quotes (e.g., «la Repubblica», «Past & Present») unlike bibliographical references (see below, Bibliographical references). Journal article titles should also be indicated in angle quotes, while book titles should be indicated in italics.
Foreign language nouns should be indicated in italics, but names of associations, parties, organisations or institutions should always be indicated in full (e.g., Labour Party, Wehrmacht, Consello da Cultura Galega, Estado Novo, …).
Apart from these exceptions, the use of italics in the text should be limited as much as possible; bold type and underlining should not be used, with exception of transcription of archival documents including them.
Acronyms should always appear without dots between letters and, the first time they are mentioned, they should be followed by the full title (always in the main text, never in italics) and any translation in brackets. Commonly used acronyms (such as USA, USSR, NATO, UN, EU, etc.) do not need to be explained. High inverted commas (“ ”) should be used to mark a metaphorical, allusive or ironic expression; angle quotes (« ») should be used for quotations that do not exceed three lines.

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N.B. Surnames should be indicated in capital letters, not small capitals; the overall page count of the work should not be entered; in the event the author’s name cannot be found, please directly indicate the title of the article, without AA.VV.


SURNAME, Nome, Full title, Place of publication, Publisher, Year, Page(s).

e.g.: ARRIGHI, Giovanni, La geometria dell’imperialismo, Milano, Feltrinelli, 1978, p. 3.


N.B. When indicating the editor, please use the original language of the work’ s publication (i.e.: a cura di, herausgegeben von, sous la dir. de, …).

SURNAME1, Name1, SURNAME2, Name2 (edited by), Full title, Place of publication, Publisher, Year, Page(s)

e.g.: TIMMERMANN, Heiner, GRUNER, Wolf D. (herausgegeben von), Demokratie und Diktatur in Europa. Geschichte und Wechsel der politischen Systeme im 20. Jahrhundert, Berlin, Duncker & Humblot, 2001, p. 7.


N.B. When first citing an essay, always indicate the pages on which the quotation begins and ends, followed by the precise page where it is located; from the second quotation onwards, it is enough to specify just the page where it is located.

SURNAME, Name, Title of essay, in SURNAME(s), NAME(s) (ed.), Title of work, Place of publication, publisher, year, page reference(s).

e.g.: MANGONI, Luisa, La cultura: periodizzazioni e apocalissi, in PAVONE, Claudio (a cura di), Novecento: i tempi della storia, Roma, Donzelli, 1997, pp. 77-97, p. 88.


SURNAME, Name, «Title of essay», in Title of journal, year or volume, issue/year of publication, page reference(s).

E.g.: WORBY, Eric, «“Discipline without oppression”: Sequence, timing and marginality in Southern Rhodesia’s post-war development regime», in The Journal of African history, 41, 1/2000, pp. 101-125.
GIANNOTTA, Anna Karin, «The environmental impacts of asymmetric material flows. Waste circulation between institutions and garbage collectors», in Diacronie, 44, 4/2020, pp. 109-131, URL: < > [consultato il 31 dicembre 2020].


N.B. The date of publication of the article should be inserted in the original language of the essay.

SURNAME, Name, «Title of the paper», in Title, date of publication, p. or pp.

e.g.: FORCELLA, Enzo, «Violenza da condannare», in Il giorno, 20 novembre 1969, p. 1.


N.B. please indicate – as appropriate – whether this is a printed or online version.

SURNAME, Name [if any], «Title of entry», in SURNAME, Name of editor(s) (ed.), Title, year, place of publication, year, p. or pp.
SURNAME, Name [if any], «Title of entry», in SURNAME, Name of editor(s) (if stated), Title, URL: < www.XXXX.XX > [accessed dd month year].

E.g.: SANDERS, Fabian, s.v. «Canoni Tibetani», in MELLONI, Alberto (a cura di), Dizionario del sapere storico religioso del Novecento, vol. I, A-F, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2010, pp. 262-274.
S.v. «liberazióne, teologìa della», in Treccani. Enciclopedia online, URL: < > [consultato il 28 gennaio 2021].


SURNAME, Name, Title, Degree thesis in …, university, place, academic year.

e.g.: DI FLORIO, Martina, Discorso geografico e immagine cartografica nell’opera di Strabone, Tesi di laurea in geografia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Bologna, a.a. 1996/1997.


SURNAME, Name, Title, place of publication [if any], university or institution of reference [if any], year, p./pp.

e.g.: MICCOLI, Maria Carmela, ANCONA, Giovanna, BISCIONE, Antonella, Dinamica demografica, crescita economica e povertà in Albania, Fisciano, C.U.S.L., 2009, p. 3, URL: < > [consultato il 13 febbraio 2021].


[digital book: format] SURNAME, Name, Title, Place, Publisher, Year, Chapter (if any), Paragraph (if any).

e.g.: [digital book: epub] APPIAH, Kwame Anthony, The Lies that Bind: Rethinking Identity, New York – London, Norton & Company, 2018, cap. “Creed”, par. “Preachments and Practices”.


COGNOME, Nome, Titolo o «Titolo» [a seconda dei casi], in titolo del sito o titolo della publicazione elettronica [a seconda dei casi], URL: < > [consultato il giorno mese anno].

E.g.: PERRIAULT, Jacques, «La norme comme instrument d’accès au savoir on-line», in Actes du colloque Initiatives 2005. La norme comme instrument de réussite d’une société de la connaissance partagée, Paris, AUF, 2 marzo 2007, URL: < 2005/document.php?id=222> [consultato il 22 giugno 2007].


DIRECTOR’S SURNAME, Name, Movie’s title, production company/ies, country/ies of production, year, duration in minutes.

e.g.: ZAHZAH, Abdenour, RIDOUH, Bachir, Frantz Fanon, The Memories from the Asylum, Anwar Cinéma, Algérie, 2008, 53′.


ARTIST’S SURNAME/BAND NAME, Name, Song’s Title, in Album’s title, Label, year.

es.: BRASSENS, George, Le Gorille, in La Mauvaise Réputation, Polydor, 1952.
es.: DIRE STRAITS, Telegraph Road, in Love over Gold, Vertigo Records, 1982.


Original name of the game, location, development team, publishing company, year.

e.g.: Assassin’s Creed II, Canada, Ubisoft, Ubisoft, 2009.

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§. = section or article (Law and Giurisprudence).
[AN] = Author’s Note [in square brackets].
Anon. = Anonymous.
appx. = appendix.
att. = attachment.
cf. = compare.
ch. = chapter (pl.: chs.).
cit. = used when repeating the reference to an earlier but non-contiguous work by an author whose other works are also given. It replaces the work’s typographical indications.

1 BITSCH, Marie-Thérèse, Jalons pour une histoire du Conseil de l’Europe, Bern, Peter Lang, 1997, p. 22.
2 BLUM, Léon, À l’échelle humaine, Paris, Gallimard, 1945, p. 43.
3 BITSCH, Marie-Thérèse, Histoire de la construction européenne de 1945 à nos jours, Bruxelles, Complexe, 2008, p. 192.
4 BROSSAT, Caroline, La culture européenne. Définition et enjeux, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 1999, p. 82.
5 BITSCH, Marie-Thérèse, Jalons pour une histoire du conseil de l’Europe, cit., p. 34.

cit. in = in the work cited.
[CN] = Curator’s Note [in square brackets].
ed. = edition.
[ed. or.] = original edition (lat.: editio originalis). The abbreviation applies both to the first edition of the text and to the edition in the original language of publication. In the first case it should be indicated as follows, in square brackets, with the addition of the year.

1 BIANCIARDI, Luciano, La vita agra, Milano, Ex cogita, 2013 [ed. or.: 1962].

In the second case, adding the original title and bibliographic data:

1 BIANCIARDI, Luciano, La vie aigre, Paris, Juillard, 1962 [ed. or.: La vita agra, Milano, Rizzoli, 1962].

[EN] = Editor’s Note [in square brackets].
et al. = and others (lat.: et alii). Used when there are more than three authors or editors.

1 BRUGNOLA, Luca, BIANCIARDI, Carlo, DI FRANCESCO, Nicoletta et al., «DataDotDNA: an alternative marking system for tortoises of genus Testudo», in Acta Herpetologica, VIII, 2/2013, pp. 163-166.

et seq. = (lat.: et sequentes) and the following. Used in written documents after a reference to a page or section to show that more information is given in later pages or sections.

1 BROSSAT, Caroline, La culture européenne. Définition et enjeux, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 1999, p. 82 et seq.

fig. = figure (pl.: figg).
Ibidem = in the same work, cited just above [in italics]. Used when the citation of the work in the immediately preceding note is to be repeated in identical form. If a quotation on the same page is given, nothing more than Ibid (not, therefore, Ivi) must be indicated, but if the quotation is from a different page, the end of the page must be added.

1 BITSCH, Marie-Thérèse, Jalons pour une histoire du Conseil de l’Europe, Bern, Peter Lang, 1997, p. 22.
2 Ibidem.
3 Ibidem, p. 23.

ID. = [pl. IDD] (lat.: idem) the same person. Used in place of the author’s name when it is that of the work mentioned in the immediately preceding note.

1 BITSCH, Marie-Thérèse, Jalons pour une histoire du Conseil de l’Europe, Bern, Peter Lang, 1997, p. 22.
2 ID., Histoire de la construction européenne de 1945 à nos jours, Bruxelles, Complexe, 2008, p. 192.

infra. = see below.
ln. = line.
loc. cit. = in the work cited (lat.: loco citato).
NB = nota bene take notice.
n.d. = date of publication is unknown.
n.p. = place of publication is unknown.
op. cit. = (lat.: opera citata) [in italics]. It is used in the repetition of the reference to a previous but not contiguous work (or article) by an author whose other works are not cited. It replaces the title and typographical indications of the work.

1 BITSCH, Marie-Thérèse, Jalons pour une histoire du Conseil de l’Europe, Bern, Peter Lang, 1997, p. 22.
2 BLUM, Léon, À l’échelle humaine, Paris, Gallimard, 1945, p. 43.
3 BITSCH, Marie-Thérèse, op. cit., p. 35.

passim = (lat.: passim) [in italics]. It is used when a particular word, phrase or idea is not restricted to just a few pages of a work, but occurs in many different places.
p. = page (pl.: pp.).
para. = paragraph.
s.n. = publisher is unknown.
sec. = section.
[sic] o [sic!] = used in quotations to indicate that any strange aspects of a piece of text, such as errors in of grammar, spelling, or word choice, are part of the original text and not a typo
s.v. = under the entry (lat.: sub voce). It is used when citing a specific entry in a dictionary or encyclopedia; if available, the author’s name should also be indicated.

1 ADAGIO, Carmelo, s.v. «Ministero della cultura popolare», in DE BERNARDI, Alberto, GUARRACINO, Scipione, Dizionario del fascismo. Storia, personaggi, cultura, economia, fonti e dibattito storiografico, Milano, Bruno Mondadori, 2003, p. 388.
2 S.v. «Interventismo», in TREVISANI, Giulio (a cura di), Piccola enciclopedia del socialismo e del comunismo, Milano, Cultura nuova editrice, 1948, p. 303.

tab. = Table/chart (plural: tabb.).
[TN] = Translator’s Note [in square brackets].
transl. = translation.
vol. = volume (pl.: voll.). The indication is to be used for bibliographical indication of a single volume. Vol. follows the volume number, which may be expressed in Arabic or Roman numerals.

1 SPRIANO, Paolo, Storia del Partito comunista italiano, vol. I, Da Bordiga a Gramsci, Torino, Einaudi, 1976, p. 211.
2 LABRIOLA, Antonio, Scritti filosofici e politici, vol. 1, Torino, Einaudi, 1973.

The indication voll. should instead be used to indicate the size of the work as a whole. Voll. precedes the number – always in Arabic numerals – of total volumes that make up the work.

1WALLERSTEIN, Immanuel, Il sistema mondiale dell’economia moderna, 3 voll., Bologna, Il Mulino, 1982-1995.